Get all child folders with PowerShell
The commandlet 'Get-ChildItem' will give you all the default information about the folders inside. By default they are: Mode, LastWriteTime, Length (for files) and Name.
If you want to achieve only the names, you should use the command like this:
Get-ChildItem -Directory | Select-Object Name
To store the data to a file, use something like this:
Get-ChildItem -Directory | Select-Object Name > result.txt